Small tractors are suitable for the current purchasing power and use conditions of small-scale agricultural operations, and have strong vitality. Small tractors include walking tractors and small four-wheel tractors. At the end of 1993, China had more than 80 factories producing small tractor products, producing 855,000 small tractors, of which more than 382,000 were walking tractors.
(1) Large walking tractor
8.8 kilowatt (12 horsepower) walking tractor has been the main product in the hand-held sales market for many years.
(2) Small and medium walking tractors
Medium-sized generally refers to 4.4 to 5.9 (6 to 8 horsepower); small generally refers to 2.2 to 3.7 kilowatts (3 to 5 horsepower).
In 1993, there were 13 large and medium-sized tractor production factories in China, which produced a total of 16 types of tractors, of which: 14 types of wheeled types, 2 types of crawler types, 2 types of skidding types, 3 types of agricultural four-wheel drive types, with a power range of 18.4 ~ 58.9 kilowatts (25 ~ 80 horsepower). The annual output is 47,000 units, of which wheeled tractors account for 64% and crawler tractors account for 36%. Small four-wheel tractors refer to small wheeled tractors with a power of 8.8 to 11 kilowatts (12 to 15 horsepower). There are more than 60 production plants and an annual output of 421,000 units. In 1993, China Agricultural Machinery Company systematically sold 38,500 large and medium-sized tractors and 351,000 walking tractors.
(1)Small four-wheel tractor
Small four-wheel tractors have been produced and used in China for more than 20 years. The number of small tractors in 1993 was 3.71 million, accounting for 47% of the total number of small tractors. Because it adapts to the current rural production system, it is helpful for short-distance transportation in rural areas. In recent years, it has developed rapidly. There are 7 basic models and more than 60 models of small four-wheel tractors.
(2) 18.4～29.4 kilowatts (25～40 horsepower) wheeled tractors
The 18.4 kilowatt (25 hp) wheeled tractor is a variant of the original Dongfanghong-20 wheeled tractor designed by China for the first time in the middle and late 1960s. The 800 and 900RS/DT series 19.1～29.4 kilowatts (26～40 horsepower) wheeled tractors of Italy Goldoni Company introduced by China First Tractor Construction Machinery Company. In addition, there is also the Changchun-400, a modified product of the original Dongfanghong-28 (20.6 kW) wheeled tractor, which is equipped with the 495A-produced by Shanghai Internal Combustion Engine Plant under the condition that most of the original chassis parts remain unchanged. Type 5 diesel engine, change the front and rear tires, and increase the power to 29.4 kW (40 horsepower).
(3) 36.8～47.8 kilowatts (50～65 horsepower) wheeled tractors
The main production plants and models are: the Shanghai-50 tractor produced by Shanghai Tractor Factory for both flood and drought. The fourth modification is the Shangdi-50N, and there is a Shanghai-504 four-wheel drive variant. Newly developed products include the introduction of Fiat (45-60 horsepower) tractors. Tianjin Tractor Factory also imported 2140 and 3140 tractors (80-100 horsepower) from Deere Company of the United States.
This series is divided into 55 ~ 58.8 kilowatts (75 ~ 80 horsepower) agricultural crawler tractors and agricultural and forestry wheeled tractors. The main production plants and models are: Dongfanghong-75 crawler tractors, variants Dongfanghong-60TJ forward and rear suspension tractors, Dongfanghong-802 crawler tractors and Dongfanghong produced by China First Tractor Engineering Machinery Co., Ltd. －LF90 series wheeled tractors, etc. Dongfanghong-802 crawler tractors are the replacement products of Dongfanghong-75 tractors. The power is increased from 55 kilowatts (75 horsepower) to 58.8 kilowatts (80 horsepower). Dongfanghong-LF90 series wheeled tractors are imported from Fiat 90 series wheeled tractor chassis and equipped with engines designed by Ricardo. There are three types of tractors: LF60·90 (60 horsepower) and LF80·90 (100 horsepower). The 4450CL four-wheel drive 118 kilowatt (160 horsepower) wheeled tractor produced by Shenyang Tractor Factory. J-80 skidding tractor is an articulated four-wheel drive tractor that is mainly used for log operations in forest areas and can be used comprehensively. This machine has superior off-road performance and strong climbing ability.
4. Mechanical tillage boat
The mechanical tillage boat, also known as the boat-shaped tractor, is a new type of paddy field power machinery created in China’s paddy field mechanization operations. The areas of use are the paddy fields in the south such as Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Guangdong.
The tillage machine was developed in the early 1980s as a simple small-scale farmland and machinery. It is a simple single-axle tractor without a gearbox. The power is 2.21～3.31 kilowatts (3～4.5 horsepower). It is suitable for small fields, Households with narrow ridges, "flower arranging" crops, and "flower arranging" fields are used more in Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and other provinces.
6. Agricultural transport vehicle
Agricultural transport vehicle is a short-distance transport vehicle suitable for the conditions of use in my country. It has Chinese characteristics, namely: a type of transport vehicle with a structure and performance between tractors and automobiles powered by diesel engines, small tonnage, medium and low speed, and low cost.
7. Tractor supporting agricultural tools
Tractor is a self-propelled agricultural power machine, which needs to be matched with various agricultural tools to complete the corresponding operation. Therefore, agricultural machinery operating units must reasonably select the supporting agricultural tools of the tractor to give full play to the role of the tractor.
8. Construction tractor
The durability and engine power of the tractor make it the most suitable for engineering tasks. Some engineering tools are often installed on tractors, such as bulldozers, bulldozers, reloading equipment, buckets, cultivating equipment, harvesters, etc. Bulldozers and buckets are often installed in front of the tractor. After the tractor is installed with engineering tools, it is usually named as an engineering vehicle.
The bulldozer is usually a crawler tractor with blades at the front and a rope winch at the back. A bulldozer is a very powerful tractor, and it has very good contact with the ground. Its main task is to push or pull things.
Bulldozers have been constantly developing, with more and more new products, and have functions that the previous tractors did not have. A loader is an example. He replaces the original blade with a large bucket, and uses a hydraulic arm to raise or lower the bucket, so it is easy to pick up dirt, rocks and soft materials and load them on the truck.
The front-loading loader and the loader are tractors with engineering tools. They have two hydraulically powered arms, which are installed on both sides of the front cabin. There is also a dumping device, which is actually a bucket with a larger opening. The flat fork or baler is installed.
The modified varieties of bulldozers also include making the equipment smaller so that it can work in small areas where movement is restricted. It is especially suitable for excavation projects in limited space.